Integrated Principles of Zoology Study Set 3

Biology

Quiz 38 :

Animal Ecology

Quiz 38 :

Animal Ecology

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Explain which of the three survivorship curves in Figure 38.2 best fits the following: (a) a population in which mortality as a proportion of survivors is constant; (b) a population in which there is little early death and most individuals live to old age; (c) a population that experiences heavy mortality of the very young but with the survivors living to old age. Offer an example from the real world of each survivorship pattern. img Figure 38.2 Three principal types of theoretical survivorship curves. See text for explanation.
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img The above graph fits the following criteria:
• A population in which mortality as a proportion of survivors is constant-- curve II
• A population in which there is little early death and most individuals live to old age-curve I
• A population that experiences heavy mortality of the very young but with the survivors living to old age-curve III
Examples from real world of each survivorship pattern are:
• Curve I - Age structure of humans.
• Curve II - Birds and animals that care for their young ones.
• Curve III - Offspring of vertebrate fishes

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A keystone species is defined as one whose removal from a community causes the extinction of other species. How does this extinction happen
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A keystone species keeps the other species in check by not allowing any particular species to overgrow others. So, when a keystone species is removed, overgrowth of one species occurs and the extinction of the other species in the same habitat.

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Define predation. How does the predator-prey relationship differ from the parasite-host relationship Why is the evolutionary race between predator and prey one that the predator cannot afford to win
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Predation describes a biological interaction where a predator (a hunter) feeds on its prey (the hunted).
Predator-prey relationships are those in which a predator kills its prey. In a parasite-host relationship, the parasite uses the host as a home and also for nutrition. The parasite usually does not kill the host but prefers to stay and multiply in the host.
In the evolutionary race between predator and prey the predator cannot afford to win as if it wins and kills all the prey, the next generation of the predator will have nothing to eat and will soon go extinct.

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Define the niche concept. How does the "realized niche" of a population differ from its "fundamental niche" How does the concept of niche differ from the concept of guild
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What do paleontological studies show about the relationship between the geographic range of a species and its probability of undergoing speciation or extinction How does this present a paradox for biodiversity
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What is a trophic level, and how does it relate to a food web
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What is the distinction between habitat and environment
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Animal communities surrounding deep-sea thermal vents apparently exist in total independence of solar energy. How is this existence possible
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Populations of independently living (unitary) animals have a characteristic age structure, sex ratio, and growth rate. However, these properties are difficult to determine for modular animals. Why
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Herbivory is an example of an interspecific interaction that is beneficial for the animal (+) but harmful to the plant it eats ( ). What are some + interactions among animal populations What is the difference between commensalism and mutualism
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Mimicry of monarch butterflies by viceroys is an example of a palatable species resembling a toxic one. What is the advantage to the viceroy of this form of mimicry What is the advantage to a toxic species of mimicking another toxic species
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Growth of a population may be hindered by either density-dependent or density-independent mechanisms. Define and contrast these two mechanisms. Offer examples of how growth of the human population might be curbed by either agent.
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Define productivity as the word is used in ecology. What is a primary producer What is the distinction between gross productivity, net productivity, and respiration What is the relation of net productivity to biomass (or standing crop)
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Explain how character displacement can ease competition between coexisting species.
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Contrast exponential and logistic growth of a population. Under what conditions might you expect a population to exhibit exponential growth Why cannot exponential growth be perpetuated indefinitely
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How would you distinguish between ecosystem, community, and population
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What is a food chain How does a food chain differ from a food web
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The term ecology is derived from the Greek meaning "house" or "place to live." However, as used by scientists, the term "ecology" is not the same as "environment." How do these terms differ
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What conditions produce an inverted pyramid of biomass in which the consumers have a greater biomass than the producers Can you think of an example of an inverted pyramid of numbers in which there are, for example, more herbivores than plants on which they feed
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The pyramid of energy has been offered as an example of the second law of thermodynamics (p. 10). Why
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