Integrated Principles of Zoology Study Set 3

Biology

Quiz 34 :

Chemical Coordination: Endocrine System

Quiz 34 :

Chemical Coordination: Endocrine System

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Why is adipose tissue now considered to be an endocrine organ
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Adipose tissue is now considered as an endocrine organ because Adipose tissue secretes peptides such as leptin, adiponectin, and the cytokine TNF- [tumor necrosis factor]. About 26 peptides called adipokines have been isolated.
Hence, adipose tissue is considered as an endocrine organ.

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What are some functions of hormones called cytokines
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Some functions of cytokines are:
• Involved in the formation of blood
• They are hormones which affect the cells which secrete them, surrounding cells and also distant cells.
• It is responsible for communication between cells.

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What are endorphins and enkephalins What are prostaglandins
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Endorphins and Enkephalins:
They are opioid peptides that act as analgesics in our body. They reduce the feeling of pain when they bind to specific opiate receptors in the midbrain.
Prostaglandins: Prostaglandins are derivatives of long chain unsaturated fatty acids. They act as local hormones. Their effect can be seen in smooth muscles and other different tissues.

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Provide definitions for the following: hormone, endocrine gland, exocrine gland, hormone receptor molecule.
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Describe the chemical nature and function of two posteriorlobe hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin. What is distinctive about the way these neurosecretory hormones are secreted compared with the neurosecretory release and release-inhibiting hormones that control the anterior pituitary hormones
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What is the importance of feedback systems in the control of hormonal output Offer an example of a hormonal feedback pattern.
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What are the two most important functions of the thyroid hormones
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Explain the actions of two hormones of the islets of Langerhans on the level of glucose in the blood. What is the consequence of insulin insufficiency or insensitivity as in the disease diabetes mellitus
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Describe the principal functions of the two major groups of adrenocortical steroids, the glucocorticoids, and the mineralocorticoids. To what extent do these names provide clues to their function
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Where are the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine produced and what is their relationship to the sympathetic nervous system and its response to emergencies
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Outline the famous experiment of Berthold that marks the first endocrine experiment. What might the hypothesis have been
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Explain how you would interpret the graph in Figure 34.11 to show that PTH and calcitonin act in a complementary way to control blood-calcium level. img Figure 34.11 How rate of secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin respond to changes in blood-calcium level in a mammal
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Name seven hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Why are four of these seven hormones called "tropic hormones" Explain how secretion of the anterior pituitary hormones is controlled by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus.
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Hormone receptor molecules are the key to understanding specificity of hormone action on target cells. Describe and distinguish between receptors located on the cell surface and those located in the nucleus of target cells. Name two hormones whose action is mediated through each type of receptor.
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What is the function of the hormone, leptin Why has its discovery proved important in the area of regulation of feeding
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Explain how the three hormones involved in insect growth-ecdysone, juvenile hormone, and PTTH-interact in molting and metamorphosis.
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What is the evolutionary origin of the pineal gland of birds and mammals Explain the role of the pineal hormone, melatonin, in regulating seasonal reproductive rhythms in birds and mammals. Does melatonin have any function in humans
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