Integrated Principles of Zoology Study Set 3

Biology

Quiz 30 :

Homeostasis: Osmotic Regulation, Excretion, and Temperature Regulation

Quiz 30 :

Homeostasis: Osmotic Regulation, Excretion, and Temperature Regulation

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How does a protonephridium differ structurally and functionally from a true nephridium (metanephridium) In what ways are they similar
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The structural difference between a protonephridium and a metanephridium can be seen in the diagrams:
img img The functional differences are:
img The similarities between a protonephridium and a metanephridium are:
• Reabsorption of valuable solutes and ions
• Addition of waste solutes to the fluid in the tubules
• Basic process of urine formation is the same where fluid enters a tubule and continuously flows through it.

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What strategy does a kangaroo rat use that allows it to exist in the desert without drinking any water
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The strategy used by a kangaroo rat that allows it to survive in the desert without drinking any water is that it reduces the amount of moisture lost from its body and retains the water gained from food and metabolism.
The ways in which it does it are:
• It produces concentrated urine with the help of an extra long loop of Henle in the kidneys.
• It also produces dry feces.
• It also keeps its nasal passages cooler so that respiratory moisture condenses forming water which is reabsorbed back into the body.
• As kangaroo rats have sweat glands only in their feet this reduces evaporative cooling (sweating), because the animal can radiate heat.

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Explain how the cycling of sodium chloride between the descending and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle in the mammalian kidney, and special permeability of these tubules, produces high osmotic concentrations in interstitial fluids in the kidney medulla. Explain the role of urea in producing high osmotic concentrations in the interstitial fluid of the medulla.
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img The descending loop of Henle is permeable to water but impermeable to sodium chloride. On the other hand, the ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to water and permeable to sodium chloride. NaCl pumps are also present which pump out NaCl out of the ascending loop of Henle. This process increases the concentration of NaCl outside the tubule which increases the osmotic concentration in the interstitial fluid of the medulla.
The collecting duct is permeable to urea. This raises the osmotic concentration of the interstitial fluid of the medulla.
This high osmotic concentration created by the movement of NaCl and urea out of the tubules creates an osmotic gradient for the controlled reabsorption of water from the collecting duct.

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Define homeostasis. What evolutionary advantages for a species might result from successful maintenance of internal homeostasis
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Explain how antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) controls excretion of water in mammalian kidneys.
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Explain why it is advantageous for certain small birds and mammals to abandon homeothermy during brief or extended periods of their lives.
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Relate the function of contractile vacuoles to the following experimental observations: to expel an amount of fluid equal in volume to the volume of the animal required 4 to 53 minutes for some freshwater protozoa, and between 2 and 5 hours for some marine species.
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Large mammals live successfully in deserts and in the arctic. Describe different adaptations mammals use to maintain homeothermy in each environment.
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Describe the physiological challenges confronting marine invertebrates entering freshwater and, using crustaceans as an example, suggest solutions to these challenges.
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Describe what happens during the following stages in urine formation in the mammalian nephron: filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion.
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In what ways does the nephridium of an earthworm parallel the human nephron in structure and function
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Distinguish the terms in the following pairs: osmotic conformity and osmotic regulation; stenohaline and euryhaline; hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic.
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Most marine invertebrates are osmotic conformers. How does their body fluid differ from that of sharks and rays, which are also in near osmotic equilibrium with their environment
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Define the following terms and comment on the limitations (if any) of each in describing the thermal relationships of animals to their environments: poikilothermy, homeothermy, ectothermy, endothermy.
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In what animals would you expect to find a salt gland What is its function
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Describe the developmental stages of kidneys in amniotes. How does the developmental sequence for amniotes differ from that of amphibians and fishes
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Young downstream salmon migrants moving from their freshwater natal streams into the sea leave an environment nearly free of salt to enter one containing three times as much salt as their body fluids. Describe osmotic challenges of each environment and suggest physiological adjustments salmon must make in moving from freshwater to the sea.
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