Integrated Principles of Zoology Study Set 3

Biology

Quiz 25 :

Early Tetrapods and Modern Amphibians

Quiz 25 :

Early Tetrapods and Modern Amphibians

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Give the literal meaning of the name Gymnophiona. What animals are included in this amphibian order, what do they look like, and where do they live
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The literal meaning of Gymnophiona is "naked snake". In Greek, gymnos means "naked" and opineos means "snake".
The animals included in this order are caecilians. These animals are elongate, limbless and burrowing, having small dermal scales on the skin and with many vertebrae and long ribs. Small eyes are present and many species are blind. They live in tropical forests of South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia.

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Describe the breeding behavior of a typical woodland salamander.
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Woodland salamander belongs to genus Plethodon and they lack lungs. They have internal fertilization, i.e. the eggs are internally fertilized.
The female recovers a packet of sperms, which are deposited by the males over a stick or leaf of her cloaca. The sperms are then stored in the female body and used for fertilizing her eggs before laying them.
The female lays eggs in small clusters, which look like grapes under the tree logs, which are soft and moist. In some species, the adults become the guardians of the eggs. The salamanders have direct development and they emerge as small forms of adults bypassing the larval stage.
Hence, woodland salamanders have internal fertilization and direct development.

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Describe the integument of a frog. How are the various skin colors produced in frogs
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The integument of the frog consists of two layers- outer stratified epidermis and inner spongy dermis. The epidermis contains two types of glands, mucous and serous glands. Mucous glands secrete mucous to protect the skin and whitish, watery poison is secreted by the serous gland which is used to irritate the predators.
The various colors produced by the skin of the frog are due to the presence of special pigment cells known as chromatophores, located in dermis. There are three types of chromatophores which impart different colors to the frog.
• Xanthophores -yellow, orange and red color.
• Iridiophores -silvery light
• Melanophores -black or brown

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Compare the general life-history patterns of salamanders with those of frogs. Which group shows a greater variety of evolutionary changes of the ancestral biphasic amphibian life cycle
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What is the literal meaning of the order names Urodela and Anura What major features distinguish members of these two orders from each other
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Describe amphibian circulation.
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Explain how the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and the sensory structures with which each brain division is concerned have developed to meet sensory requirements for amphibian life on land.
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Evolution of the tetrapod limb was one of the most important advances in vertebrate history. Describe the supposed sequence in its evolution.
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Describe the different modes of respiration used by amphibians. What paradox do amphiumas and terrestrial plethodontids present regarding the association of lungs with life on land
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Briefly describe the reproductive behavior of frogs. In what important ways do frogs and salamanders differ in their reproduction
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How did the characteristic differences between aquatic and terrestrial environments influence the early evolution of tetrapods
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How has paedomorphosis been important to evolutionary diversification of salamanders
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