Integrated Principles of Zoology Study Set 3

Biology

Quiz 19 :

Trilobites, Chelicerates, and Myriapods

Quiz 19 :

Trilobites, Chelicerates, and Myriapods

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What kind of arthropods are chiggers
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Chiggers or the redbugs belong to genus Trombicula. These are arthropods belonging to class Arachnida, order Acari.
Chiggers feed on the dermal tissues of the terrestrial vertebrates. They may cause irritating dermatitis.
Hence, chiggers belong to class Arachnida of phylum Arthropods.

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Briefly describe the distinguishing morphological features of each of the following: eurypterids, horseshoe crabs, pycnogonids.
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Morphological features of eurypterids [now extinct] are-
• Their head region was made up of six fused segments.
• Head bore both simple and compound eyes as well as chelicerae (mouth parts) and pedipalps (sensory organs).
• Their abdomen had twelve segments.
• Spike like telson (tail piece) was present at the end of the abdomen.
Morphological features of Horseshoe Crabs are -
• They have an unsegmented horseshoe- shaped carapace (hard dorsal cover) over the cephalothorax.
• There are two lateral, rudimentary eyes and two simple eyes on the carapace.
• Cephalothorax bears a pair of chelicerae, one pair of pedipalps and four pairs of walking legs.
• They have a broad abdomen with six pairs of thin appendages. Appendages are fused at the median line.
• Abdomen has a long telson at the end.
• Book gills are seen under the gill opercula on 5 abdominal appendages.
Morphological features of Pycnogonids are -
• They have small, thin bodies and 4 pairs of long legs.
• In some groups, segments are duplicated so that they possess five or six pairs of legs.
• Males of many species bear a subsidary pair of legs called ovigers on which they carry developing eggs. Ovigers are absent in females.
• Head is small and has a raised projection with two pairs of simple eyes.
• A sucking type of mouth is present at the tip of a long proboscis.
• Many species of this class are equipped with chelicerae and palps.

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Discuss the economic and medical importance of members of order Acari to human well-being.
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Acarines have direct effects on our food supply and health. The economic and medical importance of members of order Acari to human well-being is listed as below-
• They are serious agricultural pests as they suck the contents of plant cells, causing damage to crops.
• Their larvae called chiggers may cause irritating dermatitis.
• Certain mites like Demodex cause disease in domestic animals.
• They are vectors of various viral, bacterial and fungal diseases.
• Human itch mites, Sarcoptes scabiei causes itching.
• Species like Dermatophagoides farinae cause allergies and dermatoses.

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How are spiders beneficial to humans
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Describe the mechanism of each of the following with respect to spiders: feeding, excretion, sensory reception, web-spinning, reproduction.
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Why are horseshoe crabs in the same subphylum as spiders
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Which myriapods occur in moist soil or leaf litter
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Name the subphyla of arthropods, and give a few examples of each.
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How do centipedes capture and subdue prey
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What appendages are characteristic of chelicerates
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Is it true that spider silk is stronger than steel
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What are important distinguishing features of arthropods
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Briefly discuss the contribution of the cuticle to the success of arthropods, and name some other factors that have contributed to their success.
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Distinguish each of the following orders from each other: Araneae, Scorpiones, Opiliones, Acari.
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What are the most important spiders in the United States that are dangerous to humans How does their venom work
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What are the tagmata of arachnids, and which tagmata bear appendages
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What is a trilobite
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How are tagmata formed
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