Integrated Principles of Zoology Study Set 3

Biology

Quiz 11 :

Unicellular Eukaryotes

Quiz 11 :

Unicellular Eukaryotes

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Distinguish primary endosymbiogenesis from secondary endosymbiogenesis.
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Primary endosymbiogenesis occurs when a eukaryotic cell engulfs a prokaryotic cell. This prokaryotic cell then becomes an organelle in the eukaryotic cell. Mitochondria and plastids have originated in this way.
In secondary endosymbiogenesis, the product of primary endosymbiogenesis is engulfed by a eukaryotic cell. In this way a plastid can be engulfed by a eukaryotic cell.

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Distinguish vesicular and compact nuclei.
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Under the light microscope, when the chromosomal material in the nucleus shows clumps irregularly, leaving some relatively clear areas within the nucleus, the nucleus is known as vesicular nucleus.
This is characteristic of protozoan nuclei.
The Macronucleus of ciliates is described as compact because the chromatin material is more finely dispersed and clear areas cannot be observed with the light microscope.

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Contrast and give an example of autotrophic and heterotrophic protozoa.
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Autotrophic nutrition -
When organisms synthesize their own organic constituents from inorganic substrates, it is known as autotrophic nutrition.
The organisms are known as Autotrophs. Autotrophic protozoa (phototrophs) use light energy to synthesize their organic molecules, but they often practice phagotrophy and osmotrophy as well.
E.g. Euglena
Heterotrophic nutrition -
When organisms obtain organic molecules synthesized by other organisms, it is known as heterotrophic nutrition.
Heterotrophic protozoa may ingest their food in a soluble form or in particulate form. Particulate food is acquired by phagocytosis. Soluble food is ingested by osmotrophs or saprozoic feeders.
E.g. Amoeba , Didinium

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Distinguish lobopodia, filipodia, reticulopodia, and axopodia.
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Name three kinds of amebas, and tell where they are found (their habitats).
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Outline the general life cycle of malarial organisms. What explains the resurgence of malaria in recent years
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Explain the transitions of endoplasm and ectoplasm in ameboid movement. What is a current hypothesis regarding the role of actin in ameboid movement
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Define the following with reference to ciliates: macronucleus, micronucleus, pellicle, undulating membrane, cirri, infraciliature, trichocysts, conjugation.
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What is the public-health importance of Toxoplasma , and how do humans become infected with it What is the public health importance of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora
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What is the sliding-micro tubule hypothesis
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How does a unicellular eukaryote acquire considerable structural complexity within the constraints of a single cell
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Outline the steps in conjugation of ciliates.
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Explain why protozoans are neither plants nor animals.
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Distinguish among the following protozoan groups: Euglenozoa, Apicomplexa, Ciliophora, Dinoflagellata.
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Explain how protozoa eat, digest their food, osmoregulate, and respire.
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Contrast the structure of an axoneme of a cilium with that of a kinetosome.
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Distinguish the following: binary fission, budding, multiple fission, and sexual and asexual reproduction.
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What is the survival value of encystment
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