Integrated Principles of Zoology Study Set 3

Biology

Quiz 10 :

Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals

Quiz 10 :

Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals

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How many different clades of two or more species are possible for species A-H shown in Figure 10.6A img Figure 10.6 Relationships between phylogeny and taxonomic groups illustrated for a hypothetical phylogeny of eight species (A through H). A, Monophyly -a monophyletic group contains the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and all of its descendants. B, Paraphyly -a paraphyletic group contains the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and some but not all of its descendants. C, Polyphyly -a polyphyletic group does not contain the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group, thereby requiring that the group have at least two separate phylogenetic origins.
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img In the above figure, the number of clades possible for species A-H is as follows:
img

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How do monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic taxa differ How do these differences affect the validity of such taxa for both evolutionary and cladistic taxonomies
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The relationship between a taxonomic group and a phylogenetic tree or cladogram is important for phylogenetic systematics. There can be three types of relationships:
• A taxon is monophyletic if it includes the most recent common ancestor of the group and all descendants of that ancestor.
• A taxon is paraphyletic if it includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of a group and some but not all descendants of that ancestor.
• A taxon is polyphyletic if it does not include the most recent common ancestor of all members of a group; this condition requires that the group has had at least two separate evolutionary origins, usually requiring independent evolutionary acquisition of similar features.
img img img Both evolutionary and cladistic taxonomy accept monophyletic groups and reject polyphyletic groups.
In Evolutionary taxonomy, taxa may be either monophyletic or paraphyletic. Recognition of paraphyletic taxa requires that this taxonomy distort patterns of common descent.
In this diagram we see that the recognition of the families Pongidae and Hominidae distort the relationships between the three families to emphasize the uniqueness of the group Hominidae.
img In cladistic taxonomy, all taxa must be monophyletic.
Taking the same example, as the most recent common ancestor of the paraphyletic family Pongidae is also an ancestor of the Hominidae, recognition of this family Pongidae is incompatible with cladistic taxonomy.

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What is the difference between a cladogram and a phylogenetic tree Given a cladogram for a group of species, what additional information is needed to obtain a phylogenetic tree
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A cladogram is the nested hierarchy of clades, while the phylogenetic tree gives more correct and accurate information of the species.
The cladogram is constructed by using only synapomorphies among the species. The branches of a cladogram are only a formal device for indicating the nested hierarchy of clades within clades. A phylogenetic tree has more information than a cladogram. It is much more specific. Its branches represent real lineages that occurred in the evolutionary past.
The additional information needed to obtain a phylogenetic tree is important additional interpretations concerning ancestors, the durations of evolutionary lineages or the amount of evolutionary change that occurred on the lineages.

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What are the five kingdoms distinguished by Whittaker How does their recognition conflict with the principles of cladistic taxonomy
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How are taxonomic characters recognized How are such characters used to construct a cladogram
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How does the biological species concept differ from earlier typological concepts of a species Why do evolutionary biologists prefer it to typological species concepts
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List in order, from most inclusive to least inclusive, the principal categories (taxa) in Linnaean classification as currently applied to animals.
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What problems have been identified with the biological species concept How do other species concepts attempt to overcome these problems
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What taxonomic practices based on the typological species concept are retained in systematics today How has their interpretation changed
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How would cladists and evolutionary taxonomists differ in their interpretations of the statement that humans evolved from apes, which evolved from monkeys
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Explain why the system for naming species that originated with Linnaeus is "binomial."
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