Quiz 18: Mobile-Source Air Pollution
It has been stated that only permanent solution to water pollution control will occur when all production by products are routinely recycled. The zero discharge goals recognize this reality and force all discharges to work steadily toward this solution. Less stringent policies are, at best, temporary palliatives. It is true that zero discharge liability by prohibiting all kinds of discharge could result in zero water pollution. But zero discharge goal does not make any distinction among pollutants and thus cost involved in adhering to zero discharge goal may be very high. For some pollutants it may be justified but for some other fund pollutants it seems extreme. This lessens the feasibility of zero discharge goals. In fact around the world, enactment of zero discharge goal has resulted in less control being accomplished. Even more control has been accomplished with less stringent laws such as system of ambient standards etc. so to say that less stringent policies are, at best, temporary palliatives is a wrong statement. Moreover, zero discharge goal is universally being viewed as unreasonable and that is the reason even legislations pertaining to this goal do not specify any specific timetable or procedure to be established to ensure that the zero discharge goal should be met. So, less stringent laws could accomplish much more than the tough law like zero discharge goal.
It has been stated that in exercising its responsibility to protect the nation's drinking water, the government needs to intervene only in case of public water supplies. Private water supplies will be adequately protected without any government intervention. The above given assertion is aright assertion because public water supplies acts as common property resource and as happens with common property resources, in absence of clear cut property rights, they are bound to be exploited. So, public water supplies being common property resource are vulnerable. There are more than fair chances of them being exploited, overused and would be polluted. As these public water supplies are most important from view of being the source of nation's drinking water, their exploitation, pollution, and over use would be extremely harmful to a nation's interest. In such scenario, government intervention is outmost necessary. Government by controlling the use of public water supplies will prevent the overuse and exploitation and thus preserve the water supplies in such a manner that these water supplies remain rejuvenated and nation get the sufficient quantity of drinking water in present as well as in future time period. On the other hand, in case of private water supplies, property rights are clearly and exclusively established. This establishment of private property rights compels the private owner to adequately protect the water supplies because degradation of water supplies will harm the interest of private owners and thus have commendable incentives in terms of decreased water supply in future as well as less profit to protect the water supplies on its own without any government intervention.