Quiz 3: Jails

Criminal Justice

Prison or Jail: The inmates (accused individuals) are locked and are kept controlled in a particular place. It is termed as "prison." The contact from the outside world could be totally prohibited and the inmates must follow strict rules within the prison. The inmate's personal properties are not allowed to be used within the prison and their dress and personal appearance should be as per the institutional norms. Based on the inmate's personality, psychology, and history towards offence, background, and health conditions, the officers assign the unit for the prisoners. The high crime and violent criminals are locked with the unit that has maximum security. The low crime and non-violent criminals are locked in the separate unit that has minimum security. The inmates who require medical assistance are kept locked in a separate unit that has some medical facilities. The following are the special problems and needs of jail detainees: • Mental health problems: The person who is involved in a crime but who is not seriously a criminal will be affected by the mental health problems. The following are the some mental health problems of jail detainees: ? Loss of interest ? Insomnia or hypersomnia ? Attempting for suicide ? Persistent anger ? Depressive disorder These problems occur because the person feels unhappy to live in jail. The jail administration provides treatment for such problems. • Medical needs: Detainees may require medical needs based on their body conditions. They may be injured during the crime and it is required to give medical care on a daily basis. • Substance dependency: Most of the people depend on drugs to maintain good health. Without taking drug, the people in the prison will not be able to sustain a normal life. • Legal needs: The detainee requires a legal representative to the process of trial and helps for the release of criminals through bail or parole. The following are the problems to jail administrators posed by the above needs: Jail administrators should arrange the above facilities to the detainees at right time. The medical needs, substance dependency, and mental health issues are attended at the right time. The cost for arranging these facilities will be higher. The fund allotted to the jail administration is always insufficient to arrange these facilities. Further, they should manage the security, schedule all programs, and arrange funds for all facilities. Hence, these are the problems faced by the jail administrators.

Preventive detention: Preventive detention is a practice of holding defendants in the bars before pretrial without undertaking a bail. It is an important indication for crime control perspective on justice. This law entails to have dangerous defendants restricted before trial from their own protection. The pros and cons of preventive detention: Pros: • The crime rate will be reduced if the criminal is locked in the prison permanently. • This punishment will be an example to others and people will fear of committing crime. • The safety of the nation will be ensured if most of the criminals are incarcerated. Cons: • The jails will be overcrowded and the administration cost will be increased. • Maintaining old aged criminals are very difficult and expensive. • The nation's tax amount will be spent for unproductive activity and it will affect the nation's economic condition. The following are the ways by which preventive detention a ffects crime control: Preventive detention will help to prevent and control criminal activities. The person who commits continuous crime will be prohibited within jail. He/she cannot commit crime. The public will also have fear on preventive detention and they have fear to commit crime. Hence, it helps to reduce the crime rate and crime control. The following are the ways by which preventive detention affects due process: Due process is that the states in U country should not deprive any individuals' liberty, life, or property. In preventive detention, the liberty of an individual is affected and it is against the fourteenth amendment. An individual should not imprison unless he/she commits a crime. Hence, the preventive detention affects the due process of law.

Prison or Jail: The inmates (accused individuals) are locked and are kept controlled in a particular place. It is termed as "prison." The contact from the outside world could be totally prohibited and the inmates must follow strict rules within the prison. The inmate's personal properties are not allowed to be used within the prison and their dress and personal appearance should be as per the institutional norms. Based on the inmate's personality, psychology, and history towards offence, background, and health conditions, the officers assign the unit for the prisoners. The high crime and violent criminals are locked with the unit that has maximum security. The low crime and non-violent criminals are locked in the separate unit that has minimum security. The inmates who require medical assistance are kept locked in a separate unit that has some medical facilities. The following are the ways to balance tension between public safety and jail management: The key issue of jail management is overcrowding. Prisoners do not have enough space in prison. Most of the inmates are released before completing their sentence period due to overcrowding. Sometime releasing criminals will be dangerous to the public safety. It is very difficult to manage both at same time. However, the court uses the following options to punish the criminals and provides a chance to become good citizens. The following are the provisions allowed by the court to the prisoners: • Weekend programs • Electronic monitoring (EM) • Day reporting • Treatment programs • Community services • Pretrial supervision • Home detention (no EM) This will reduce the crowd in the jail and the minor crime must be given non-prison punishment. It helps to lock the individual who has committed higher crime in prison and those who are hazardous to public. By this, they ensure public safety.