Accounting Information Systems Study Set 26

Business

Quiz 3 :

Data Modeling

Quiz 3 :

Data Modeling

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Think about the last time that you purchased something over the Internet. What did the checkout page look like? What business rules applied?
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Business rules
These are conditions on how a business is processed, explained and expressed clearly and precisely, guiding on how a business should operate and behave in certain circumstances. They are not modeled but are in a written form.
A normal checkout page would show the selected purchased items, cost for shipping of the product, name of the customer, contact details of the customer including phone number and email id, delivery address of the customer, and payment information whether the customer wants to pay through credit card or through other payment options.
Business rules that apply to the process of purchase are as follows:
1. Rules regarding the compulsory fields that has to be filled while placing the order which does not allow the customer to move further in the process of placing of order if the compulsory fields are not filled.
2. Rules regarding the valid payment options, which provides the customers the payment options through which he can pay the amount.
3. Rules regarding the valid shipping destinations. If the shipping destination is not valid and is not reachable the customer won't be allowed to place the order.

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Compare the UML class diagram shown in Figure 3.7 with the entity-relationship diagram shown in Figure 3. A2. Describe the differences and the similarities. img img
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Unified modelling language (UML) data models
These are the representation of databases' conceptual contents in a graphical manner and not in a written manner. And this helps the database users to easily understand what the database designers are trying to convey.
Entity-relationship diagram (ER-D)
It is the representation of logical data structure in graphs. It is the tool which captures the design of the relational database system conceptually. UML class models and ER-D are equivalent as a tool of data structure modelling.
The figure of the entity relationship diagram mentioned is:
img In the above diagram, a relationship between singers, records, and songs is shown. The cardinality allotted to the singers is (0,N) which means that there could be minimum zero number of songs that can be recorded by a singer, up to any numbers of songs.
Cardinality allotted to songs is (1,1) which means that there is maximum and minimum one singer that record each song. This shows that the relationship between singers and songs is of one-to-many. This means that one singer can record many songs.
The figure of the UML diagram mentioned is:
img In the above diagram, a few associations can be seen such as, the person is associated to auto with one-to-many relationship, which means that a person can own more than one auto.
Auto is associated to dealers with a many-to-many relationship, which means that many autos can be serviced from many dealers. And, auto is related to the state with a one-to-many relationship, which means that many autos can be licensed from a state.
In the above two figures, a simple difference can be seen in the relationship diamonds and association lines. The Entity relationship diagram is connected with diamonds, and UML model class diagram is connected with association lines.
The ER-D names the relationship, providing additional information about the purpose of the relationship, unlike UML models. The only similarity that can be seen is that they both are the tools to show relationships.

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Which of the following is not an enforcement level for a business rule? a. Strict enforcement B) Optional enforcement C) Pre-override enforcement D) Post-override enforcement E) Guideline
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Enforcement level for a business rule:
Rules are enforceable in a business and they provide the information to deal with particular situations and strict actions are taken when certain mandatory rules are violated.
Option a is incorrect as strict enforcement is an enforcement level where rules cannot be violated.
Option b is incorrect as optional enforcement is an enforcement level where rules are limited to only certain business policies.
Option c is incorrect as pre-override is an enforcement level where rules can be allowed to violate if authorized in advance.
Option d is incorrect as post-override is an enforcement level where rules can be allowed to violate if authorized after violation.
Option e is correct as guideline is followed but not enforced, thus the correct option is
img

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Consider the sale and cash receipt classes shown in Discussion Question 1. What kind of business is this (in terms of its payment requirements from customers)? How would the multiplicities change if the business (e.g., a used car dealer) accepted multiple payments over time?
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Which of the following is not an objective of a structure model? a. Designate things of interest in the business domain B) Describe characteristics of things of interest in the business domain C) Support relational database design D) Describe the sequence of activities E) All of the above are objectives of structure models.
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Prepare an alternate model for the following. Hint: Consider a composition relationship. Which diagram do you think is most descriptive? img
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Which of the following statements is true about the following class diagram? img
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Which of the following symbols is used to represent a class in a UML class diagram? img
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Write out a set of relational tables that correspond to the class diagram that you prepared for Problem 2. Identify primary and foreign keys. img
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Identify the classes and associations in the following narrative, and draw a class diagram with multiplicities: Dr. Franklin runs a small medical clinic specializing in family practice. She has many patients. When the patients visit the clinic, she may perform several tests to diagnose their conditions. She bills the patient one amount for the visit plus additional amounts for each test.
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Which of the following statements concerning this class diagram with multiplicities is not true? img
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Which of the following best describes the meaning of this diagram? img
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Consider the following model and corresponding relational tables. Describe the meaning of the diagram in words. Assume that Students are identified by Student ID Number and Courses are identified by Course Number. List the relational tables that would implement the diagram (you may make assumptions about the nonidentifying fields in the tables). img
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Consider the diagram in Discussion Question 4. Describe other circumstances that might be modeled with similar models. img
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Identify the classes and associations in the following narrative, and draw a class diagram with multiplicities: Paige ran a small frozen yogurt shop. She bought several flavors of frozen yogurt mix from her yogurt supplier. She bought plastic cups in several sizes from another supplier. She bought cones from a third supplier. She counts yogurt and cones as inventory, but she treats the cups as operating expense and doesn't track any cup inventory.
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Consider the following one-to-one association between classes. You are mapping the diagram to a set of relational tables. Where would you post the foreign key? Why would you post it there? img
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Think about the process you went through to enroll in this class. What business rules do you think applied to the enrollment process? Are all of these rules written? Why or why not?
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Write out a set of relational tables that correspond to the class diagram that you prepared for Problem 1. Identify primary and foreign keys. img
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Contrast the UML class diagrams with the entity-relationship diagrams shown in Appendix A. Which of the following pairs are not equivalent? a. Class and Entity B) Class and Relationship C) Association and Relationship D) Multiplicity and Cardinality E) All of these are equivalent.
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Which of the following is an example of an obligatory business rule? a. Customers must provide a valid credit card number. B) Customers must enter a shipping address. C) Customers may not enter a post office box as a shipping address. D) Customers may use VISA or MASTERCARD. E) Both a and b are obligatory business rules.
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