Spiritual distress is described as "disturbances in the value system or belief, which imparts the relief, ambition, meaning, and strength of life". The NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association) International classifies the characteristics of spiritual distress.
They use the criterion, whether they reflect an impaired connection with others, self, art, nature, literature, or power than greater than self. Some of the characteristics can be mentioned as follows:
1. The individual expresses a lack of desire, inadequate acceptance of the self, and meaning of life.
2. The individual expresses the feeling of being abandoned.
3. The individual shows reluctance to interact with other people.
4. The individual exhibits certain and sudden changes in the spirituality.
5. The individual makes a request or refuses to meet a spiritual leader.
6. The individual exhibits no interest in nature or spirituality.
In the given case, the client is expressing a lack of hope and meaning of life. He is thinking that his life is useless now. He thinks that he is being punished for his non-religious beliefs.
Therefore, these feelings of the client suggest that he is suffering from the spiritual distress. It is obvious for him to be spiritually distressed when he knows that AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) has no cure, and he can only prolong his life with extra precautions and medications.
Older people are found to be more religious in comparison to the young generations. They feel more comforted and stress-free under religious environment. If a person's spiritual well-being is good, it is directly proportional to the good mental health. Being spiritual gives you peace of mind. Impaired religiosity, spiritual distress, and readiness for enhanced spiritual well-being, all do not fall under the problem raised by the client.
Hence, the options 1, 3 and 4 are incorrect.
To provide an ultimate care a nurse must not only look after a client's physical needs but also take care of the client inner soul and self. There is an ample amount of evidence to relate physical health to spiritual health. Here, the client will be included in the risk for impaired religiosity diagnosis.
Hence, the correct answer is option
Assuming that everyone is spiritual in some or the other way, most clients would be spiritual. Therefore, they would require spiritual nursing care. The need of spiritual nursing care is important, because the health depends to the spirituality and vice versa.
The need of spirituality is increased in the case of illness or health problem. The worse the illness is, the more the spiritually distress would be. The clients often find the lack of trust in their own beliefs after being challenged by a health problem.
Many times, the client even changes their beliefs after the suffering due to the illness. However, some might adhere to their belief system even more during the health problems. Magyar-Russell et. al. also found the similar observations in a study, which proved that 58% of patients experienced religious struggle.
Some clients may express gratitude or joy, or continue with the inner spirituality. The characteristics that are related to the correlation of illness with spirituality or religion can be mentioned as follows:
1. Sudden changes in spirituality.
2. Request or refusal to meet the spiritual or religious leader.
3. No interest in religion or spirituality.