Quiz 31: Asepsis
Pneumonia is the inflammatory disease of the lungs that mainly affects the affect the alveoli. This condition is generally caused by the infection of various bacteria and viruses. The various symptoms of this condition are the presence of cough, fever, chills, shortness of breath, chest pain, headache, sweating, low energy, and confusion, and many others. Many of the symptoms match with the given case. Mrs. Cortez had a persistent upper respiratory infection, which is associated with the pneumonia. Pneumonia is an oropharyngial infection caused by various microbes. Weight loss, loss of appetite, fatigue, and nutritional deficiency are the other symptoms of the pneumonia described by the client, which suggests that the client probably was suffering from pneumonia. The shortness of breath is a key symptom of pneumonia. Therefore, a strong inference was made in the favor of potential pneumonia in her case.
Nurses are involved in saving the lives after an injury, and also are directly involved in preventing any disease. Microorganisms exist almost everywhere in our environment. They exist in our body like stomach, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Some of these microbes are involved in performing the essential functions of the body, while some are responsible for many diseases. Bacteriocins are substances produced by the bacteria, which releases lethal secretions. Eliminating the reservoir is not possible, because the infection is chronic. Blocking the portal of entry into the host can have a temporary effect. Decreasing the susceptibility of the host is not possible during the spreading of the infection. Hence, the options 1, 3 and 4 are incorrect. The correct nursing intervention will be to block the portal of exit from the reservoir. By blocking the direction of movement of the microbes from the reservoir, the infection can be reduced. Hence, the correct answer is the option .
A 76-year-old patient is suffering from the infections in her upper respiratory tract. She has gradually lost weight due to the inability to prepare food. She also exhibits certain signs and symptoms of pneumonia, such as the presence of decreased water content, cough, and breathlessness. The client's history, the laboratory data, and the physical assessment are the essential information for the assessment of the case. The various assessment data can be mentioned as follows: 1. The nursing history of the client : The nurse assesses the extent to which, a client is at a risk of developing the infection, and any client complaint suggesting an infection. The risk is assessed by interviewing the client about the history of the infection. She may correlate the data with medication, recurrence of the infection, and therapeutic uses. 2. The physical assessment : The various signs and the symptoms of the infection are recorded in this assessment. The symptoms can be sneezing, cough, mucoid discharge, urinary frequency, color of the urine, fever, and marks on the skin. Skin and mucosal infections have symptoms like swelling, redness, pain, loss of function of the localized area. Systemic infections have symptoms like fever, hypertension, fatigue, vomiting, and anorexia. 3. Laboratory data : This information usually confirms the prediction of infection. The laboratory data confirms the presence of an infection if the white blood cell (WBC) count is increased, if only the count of a certain type of WBC is different, there is the presence of high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and various other laboratory findings.