Cancer is defined as uncontrolled proliferation of cells, which divide continuously to form a tumor or clone cells that possess the potential to metastasize towards different sites inside the body.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a viral infection, which can be transmitted through sexual intercourse and direct contact with body fluids of the infected person.
This case is a classic example of king's model of nursing. Specifically this is transaction process model. It describes the nature and standard of nurse-client interactions that leads to a goal attainment.
The nurse interacts with client with a purpose and mutually sets some goals and tries to achieve them. The goals can be outcomes like better health achievement.
King's theory deals with the interaction with client and his environment including family. It explains the need of client participation in the decision making. In the example given, nurse interacted with the client to relieve him from diarrhea and discussing intensively with client and environment.
All professions are founded on some sort of concepts and theories. There is a link between practices, research and education exist. Nursing is no different. Nurses identify with various concepts and theories.
A paradigm sets an example for better understanding. It has patterns to easily understand the reality. A theory is defined to explain phenomena. It involves the system of ideas to explain phenomena. Philosophy incorporates the bringing of similar ideas to a common platform.
Hence, the options 1, 3 and 4 are incorrect.
When some ideas are defined together, it is called a conceptual framework. For example, the concept of Freud's structure of mind this includes id, ego, and superego. These three concepts can be considered his conceptual framework.
Hence, the correct answer is option
The HIV or human immunodeficiency virus as a subgroup of retrovirus causes infection of HIV as well as after some time leads to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A situation affects humans as well as results in progression of failure of the human immune system.
Physician has a perspective to avoid any side effects of the intravenous nutrition in such a dangerous disease. He even compared the situation to the advanced cancer. Chances of sepsis and bubbling are additional concerns in HIV infection.
Nurse's primary concern is to treat the diarrhea and relieve the client. Client is also unable to feed properly. Therefore, she has a view that intravenous nutrition should be preferred. She also did not agree to the comparison made with the advanced cancer as the client's prognosis was better than the client of advanced cancer.
This is clear example of metaparadigm existing in the nursing. Nurse's interest in the client and discussion with the physician is in accordance with the role of nursing proposed by the various theories.