Quiz 3: Nursing Theories and Conceptual Frameworks
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a viral infection, which can be transmitted through sexual intercourse and direct contact with body fluids of the infected person. AIDS, when initiated by the multidrug resistant strains of the retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is difficult to treat and is usually fatal. The HIV virus specifically infects the T-lymphocytes because they express the specific receptor proteins for the virus. All four concepts of metaparadigm for nursing are present in this case. These are central to the nursing and are as follows: 1. Clients- Recipients of nursing care 2. Environment- It is the surroundings of the client. It includes the families and friends of the client. 3. Health- It is the state of well-being experienced by the client. 4. Nursing- Attributes and actions of the nurse providing care to a client. The example given has client, nursing, interaction of environment/ closed ones and state of health. Therefore, all four concepts are present.
All professions require some sort of theories and concepts. Nursing is no different. Nurses identify with various concepts and theories. There is a link between practice, research, and education. A concept is like building blocks of theory. It includes like the concept of speed of light or Einstein's theory. But everything cannot be explained in term of building blocks. A paradigm sets an example for better understanding. It has patterns to easily understand the reality. When some ideas are defined together, it is called a conceptual framework. Hence, the options 1, 2 and 4 are incorrect. A theory is defined to explain phenomena. It involves the system of ideas to explain phenomena. There are some very famous theories such as the theory of evolution and theory of relativity. Hence, the correct answer is option .
The HIV or human immunodeficiency virus as a subgroup of retrovirus causes infection of HIV as well as after some time leads to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A situation affects humans as well as results in progression of failure of the human immune system. Physician has a perspective to avoid any side effects of the intravenous nutrition in such a dangerous disease. He even compared the situation to the advanced cancer. Chances of sepsis and bubbling are additional concerns in HIV infection. Nurse's primary concern is to treat the diarrhea and relieve the client. Client is also unable to feed properly. Therefore, she has a view that intravenous nutrition should be preferred. She also did not agree to the comparison made with the advanced cancer as the client's prognosis was better than the client of advanced cancer. This is clear example of metaparadigm existing in the nursing. Nurse's interest in the client and discussion with the physician is in accordance with the role of nursing proposed by the various theories.