# Basic Marketing Research with Excel

## Quiz 7 :Measurement Scales

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Pick any fast-food chain (McDonald's, KFC, etc.) and construct a scale that measures the performance of that chain's units. Use a one-way labeled scale that measures the chain on at least five performance attributes that you think are relevant. Be sure to include any instructions for the respondents.
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A one-way labeled scale helps to measure the performance of a company on a five point scale comprising parameters like excellent, very good, good, fair, and poor.
One-way labeled scale to measure the performance of Restaurant K would include the following factors:
• The scale would comprise the positive factors of a restaurant.
• The investigator should measure the features using different labels.
The respondent should rate their opinion by circling the correct cell of the one-way labelled scale.
Design of a one-way labeled scale to accomplish the desired objective is given below:
Hence, a one-way labeled scale is designed for the above problem.

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Distinguish a synthetic number scale from a synthetic label scale. What do these two types of scales have in common, and how do they differ?
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Synthetic number scale:
• If the researcher utilizes a number series such as 1-5, 1-7, 1-10 to specify the different grades of the respondent's view, then the scale is called as synthetic number scale.
• It holds meaning in the scale of the state from which it arises.
• The range of this scale and attributes are known.
• To know the meaning of number, the scale is measured.
Synthetic labels scale:
• If the researcher uses various words like 'excellent', 'very good', 'good', 'fair', 'poor' to specify the different grades of the respondent's view, then the scale is called as synthetic metric scale.
• It holds meaning in the scale of the state from which it arises.
Thus, synthetic number scale uses numbers, and synthetic label scale uses words. But both of these have meaning in the scale of the state from which it arises.
Hence, the similarities and difference between synthetic number scale and synthetic label scale are described.

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Mike, the owner of Mike's Market, which is a convenience store, is concerned about low sales. He reads in a marketing textbook that the image of a store often has an impact on its ability to attract its target market. He contacts the All-Right Research Company and commissions you, a marketing researcher, to conduct a study that will shape his store's image. You are charged with the responsibility of developing the store-image part of the questionnaire. Design a semantic differential scale that will measure the relevant aspects of the market's image. In your work on this scale, you must do the following: (a) brainstorm ten convenience store properties to be measured, (b) determine the appropriate bipolar adjectives, (c) decide on the number of scale points, and (d) indicate how the scale controls for the halo effect.
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A semantic differential scale measures the relevant aspects of M's market's image.
a.
Ten measurable store properties:
• Location
• Checkout speed
• Price
• Parking
• Friendliness
• Quality of the product
• Quantity of the product
• Service quality
• Availability of products
• Purchasing through a debit card
Thus, the ten measurable store properties are described.
b.
• Low price, High price
• Limited products, wide products
• Convenient location, inconvenient location
• Low quality, high quality
Thus, the above listed are the bipolar adjectives on the semantic differential scale.
c.
Number of scale points:
• Use 5-point, or 7-points as scale points on the semantic differential scale.
• Use neutral point, if the answerer is unfamiliar with M's market.
Thus, use 5 -points or 7-points on the scale.
d.
Control for halo effect:
• Control for halo effect is accomplished by reversing the bipolar adjectives listed in part b.
Thus, the halo effect is controllable.
Hence, by using semantic differential scale, the relevant aspects of M's market image are described.

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Explain what is meant by a continuum along which a subjective property of an object can be measured.
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Distinguish among a modified Likert scale, a semantic differential scale, and a Stapel scale.
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Distinguish a symmetric synthetic scale from a nonsymmetric synthetic scale. Provide an example of each of these types of scales.
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What is an "anchor" and how does an anchor give a context to an n -point scale?
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Harley-Davidson is the largest American motorcycle manufacturer, and it has been in business for several decades. Harley-Davidson has expanded into "signature" products such as shirts that prominently display the Harley-Davidson logo. Some people have a negative image of Harley-Davidson because it was the motorcycle favored by the Hell's Angels and other motorcycle gangs. There are two research questions here. First, do consumers have a negative feeling toward Harley-Davidson, and, second, are they disinclined toward the purchase of Harley-Davidson signature products such as shirts, belts, boots, jackets, sweatshirts, lighters, and key chains? Design a Likert measurement scale that can be used in a nationwide telephone study to address these two issues.
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Distinguish among a one-way labeled scale and an n -point scale.
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What is meant by the "level of measurement"? Identify and define the two levels of measurement described in this chapter.
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List each of the three basic question-response formats. Indicate the two variations for each one, and provide an example for each.
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How does reliability differ from validity? In your answer, define each term.
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Each of the following examples involves a marketing researcher's need to measure some construct. Devise an appropriate scale for each one. Defend the scale in terms of its level of measurement and use or nonuse of a "no opinion" or neutral response category. a. Mattel wants to know how preschool children react to a sing-along video game in which the child must sing along with an animated character and guess the next word in the song at various points in the video. b. TCBY is testing five new flavors of frozen yogurt and wants to know how its customers rate each one on sweetness, flavor strength, and richness of taste. c. A pharmaceutical company wants to find out how much a new federal law eliminating dispensing of free sample prescription drugs by doctors will affect their intentions to prescribe generic versus brand-name drugs for their patients.
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What is measurement? In your answer, differentiate an object from its properties, both objective and subjective.
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What is the halo effect, and when and how does a researcher control for it?
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What are the arguments for and against the inclusion of a neutral response position in a symmetric scale?
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Discuss the meaning of an operational definition. How does a researcher use an operational definition? Provide an example of the operational definition for each of the following: a. Likelihood of buying car X b. Media habits such as reading the newspaper c. Attitude toward global warming
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What consideration should be foremost in a researcher's decision to use a symmetric synthetic rating scale versus a nonsymmetric one?
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