Genetics - Analysis and Principles
Quiz 21 :
Functional genomics: Functional genomics clearly elucidates the functions of genetic sequences in a species at a genome level. It is involved in gene functions of DNA, RNA and AA sequences, simultaneously studies the group of genes and aims in the study of different cellular processes like metabolic pathways. It produces characteristics of cells and traits of organisms. It can also understand the roles of genetic sequences like repetitive sequences and centromeres. This information can be obtained from genome-sequencing project using DNA-microarrays and also from gene-knockout studies. Proteomics: Proteome is the complete gathering of proteins in a cell or organism of given species. The study of functions and interactions involved in these proteins is considered as proteomics. This also involves study of group of proteins simultaneously and how they act as integrated units. This study ultimately leads to analyze the functions and characteristics of traits of a given species.
Subtractive cDNA (complementary Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid) library or subtractive library is a DNA library that contains cDNA clones from a specific type of cell or tissue, but not the other, of an organism. For example, if a researcher wants to know the genes that are expressed only in muscle but not in liver cells, he/she could use the subtractive cDNA construction to know the same, as given below: • cDNA of all the mRNA (messenger RNA) of muscle cells and liver cells is prepared • The single stranded DNA complementary for the cDNA of liver cells (the DNA of tissues which is to be subtracted from the tissue of interest) is tagged (tagging can be done in several ways, like fluorescence dyes, biotinylated probes, radioactive probes)• The mixture of cDNA of muscle cells and excess of ssDNA of liver cells is heated followed by rapid cooling. This allows cDNA to hybridize with excess tagged ssDNA • The tagged double stranded hybrids and tagged single stranded DNA are selectively removed from the solution • Now, whatever cDNA that are left in the solution correspond to genes that are expressed only in the muscle cells but not the liver cells (To make it simple, cDNA from liver cells is not shown in the figure, but they are also added, along with excess of ssDNA complementary to cDNA)Subtractive cDNA can be used to screen the influence of a hormone or a growth factor on a cell by analysis of the cDNA after subjecting the cells to the molecule (hormone or growth factor) under study. Also, subtractive DNA are more useful in construction of cDNA libraries as only clones that are specific to a cell type can be stored, redundant clones can be avoideD.
We can follow several innovative strategies which can make a mouse genome more useful and effectivE.a. I will provide the information regarding known alleles. b. I will provide the bibliographic information. c. Organize the complete genetic information so researchers can easily access the information. d. Known gene information should be provided for easy mapping the specific locations. e. A list of pertinent publications is useful for sequencing the datA.
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