Quiz 19: Gene Mutation, Dna Repair, and Recombination

Biology

A recombinant microorganism is the organism that is produced by using recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering techniques, including isolation and cloning of specified DNA.Recombinant microbes have immense value in biological research, many proteins, which are of medical importance have been produced in this way such as insulin, HGH, erythropoietin. Genetically modified plants and microbes can be used in remediating persistent pollutants such as toxic explosive residues as well as for cleaning oil spills at sea and on the shorE.For example Pseudomonas putida is a recombinant bacterium, which poses the genes that are have the ability to degrade complex aromatic (oil) compounds.

Recombinant bacteria can produce hormones that are normally produced in human. For e.g., recombinant insulin (hormone) is a dimer comprising of A chain with 21 amino acid and B chain with 30 amino acid. Both A and B are derived from single polypeptide chain, which is further fold spontaneously to yield proinsulin and chain A and B becomes linked by disulphide bridges. This is followed by the cleavage of leader and C chain forming a mature insulin molecule.

Advantages of gene therapy: • It is used for curing severe combined immunodeficiency diseasE.• It determines the role of its product in health and diseasE.• It is highly effective in counteracting the genetic disorders. • Efficiently transfer the cloned genes to human cells and tissue types. • Prevents inflammatory responses mediated by virus particles. Disadvantages of gene therapy: • This is very expensivE.• The changes occurring due to therapy would be heritable and would be passed on to later generations. • It even becomes more complicated for certain complex genetic disorders such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases. • Evokes undesirable immune response when injected into patients. Gene therapy is a one technology of introducing the foreign DNA in patient for correcting a genetic defect. As far as we are concerned for funding research for gene therapy, we would prioritize cancer, diabetes and arthritis as our top three diseases. Because now days these genetic diseases have become more dangerous out of severity, so it's necessary to get a permanent way to cure such diseases for a better tomorrow.