The polymeric nucleic acids, DNA and RNA are made of subunits known as nucleotides. The nucleotides are made of three major building blocks, the nitrogenous bases, the carbon sugar (ribose sugar in RNA and deoxyribose sugar in DNA), and the phosphate group.
The phosphate group is attached to the sugar, which in turn is linked to the nitrogenous base. Several nucleotides with all three building blocks link together to form a DNA strand. The nucleotides link themselves in a specific sequence, in a manner that the DNA strand has a 5' and 3' of the sugar at the opposite ends. The phosphate backbone attaches itself to the 5' end of the sugar and the 3' end of the sugar molecule in turn is linked to another phosphate group. Thus, while the 5' position of the sugar is at one end of the DNA strand, the opposite end will always have the 3' group of a pentose sugar.
The DNA double helix has a pair of strands that are formed by the complementary base pairing. While guanine on one strand pairs with the cytosine on the complementary strand, the adenine of one strand always pairs with the thymine on the complementary strand. This base pairing specifically between guanine and cytosine and between adenine and thymine is known as the complementary base pairing. Thus, the two strands of the DNA double helix are complementary and opposed, the sequence moving in the opposite direction.
In accordance to the base pair rule, the sequence of the complementary strand to a strand with the sequence 5'-GGCATTACACTAGGCCT-3' would be 3'-CCGTAATGTGATCCGGA-5'.
The synonyms for the word 'transformation' in most dictionaries include 'alteration', 'change', and 'conversion'. The definition for the word 'transformation' in most dictionaries provides the meaning 'to induce a change'.
It is appropriate to describe the process of genetic material transfer from one organism to another as 'transformation' as the transferred genetic material "induces a change" in the recipient.