Quiz 4: Extensions of Mendelian Inheritance

Biology

Pattern of Mendelian Inheritance, which includes one gene are; dominance, incomplete dominance, co-dominance, and over-dominance. Differences among them are given below with suitable examples: Dominance : Principle of dominance was discovered by Gregor Mendel. In hybrid parents, among different traits of mated types; one trait disappears in offspring of heterozygous hybrid. The disappeared trait in coming generation is unchanged completely and is invisible in second generation. However, the trait that is visible is called dominant. Incomplete dominance: The arrangement of disorder occurs when heterozygous phenotype lie in-between, corresponding homozygous individuals. For instance, most of the alleles display relationship between recessive and dominant individuals. It was first noticed in color of four o'clock ( Mirabilis jalapa ) plant. When a cross takes place in-between homozygous white-flowered parents and homogous red-flowered parents. The resultant offspring is heterozygous pink flowers. Co-dominance: The arrangement in heterozygote expresses when both alleles occur simultaneously; For instance, occurrence of co-dominance in individuals of AB blood types with A and B alleles. In addition, the co-dominant alleles will encode to protein that vary in function from each other. Moreover, the function of individual protein in heterozygote, affects corresponding phenotypE.Over-dominance: The arrangement of heterozygote pattern occur a trait that is more beneficial when compared to either of homozygotes. The benefits of heterozygotes cells contain more resistance to infections, produces many types of protein dimers with improved functions, and produce proteins with wider rangE.

Typically Mexican hairless dogs that have little hair and few teeth are heterozygous for a dominant allele. These genes are lethal when occur in homozygous condition. When two Mexican hairless dogs were mated to each other, we can expect 50% of the total offsprings to be hairless, 25% offsprings to be normal, whereas 25% offsprings diE.

Biology is divided into several levels of organization. Organization at the molecular level deals with biochemical molecules such as DNA, which make up a cell. The cell is the unit of all life and the organism is the cell or collection of cells, which make up all living things including plants, animals, and bacteriA.An organism's genotype is determined by its molecular makeup, the order of the base pairs in its strands of DNA, which code for proteins. However, organisms with different genotypes can have identical phenotypes. Heterozygous pea plants with purple flowers. For instance, they can have recessive alleles for white flowers (genotype), but the pea plant flowers are all purple (phenotype). In those pea plants the allele, which code for purple flowers is dominant over the allele, which code for white. Genes work at the molecular level but are not always expressed at the cellular or organism level. In other words, an organism's genotype is molecular and its phenotype is cellular.