Genetics - Analysis and Principles

Biology

Quiz 2 :

Mendelian Inheritance

Quiz 2 :

Mendelian Inheritance

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As in many animals, albino coat color is a recessive trait in guinea pigs. Researchers removed the ovaries from an albino female guinea pig and then transplanted ovaries from a true-breeding black guinea pig. They then mated this albino female (with the transplanted ovaries) to an albino male. The albino female produced three offspring. What were their coat colors Explain the results.
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The coat color for all offsprings will be covered with black fur. This is because; the female albinos can produce only dominant black alleles, if they are true-breeding organisms. The transplanted ovaries express only black coat color, so the results may contain a heterozygous offsprings (Bb).

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Do you know the genotype of an individual with a recessive trait and/or a dominant trait Explain your answer.
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We do know the genotype of an individual with recessive trait, but not the genotype of an individual with dominant trait.
If an individual shows the dominant trait, it can either be homozygous dominant for the expressed trait, means both the alleles are identical ( AA ); or it can be heterozygous dominant, means one allele is dominant, and the other is recessive ( Aa ). The dominant trait is expressed when one dominant allele is present. Thus, by observing the phenotype of an individual we do not know the genotype of an individual with dominant trait.
In case of individual expressing recessive trait, we can predict the genotype. This is possible because, recessive trait is expressed in homozygous condition ( aa ). In other words, recessive trait is expressed when two recessive alleles are present.

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Describe the difference between genotype and phenotype. Give three examples. Is it possible for two individuals to have the same phenotype but different genotypes
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A genotype is the genetic information of an organism, which expresses a particular character. The phenotype is the character that is expressed by the genotype. For example, a plant with the genotype RR , expresses Red color flowers (phenotype). Another plant with rr ¸ expresses white color flowers. If both the plants are crossed, produce an offspring with the genotype Rr , expressing Red color flowers. Here, Red color trait is said to the dominant , and the white is recessive.
Yes, it is possible for two individuals to have different genotypes that express the same phenotype. Take the above mentioned example to understand this phenomenon. A cross between the two plants will give offsprings with the different genotypes RR, Rr , but they express Red color flowers that means their phenotype is samE.

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How long did it take Mendel to complete the experiment in Figure 2.5 FIGURE 2.5 Mendel's analysis of single-factor crosses. Starting material: Mendel began his experiments with true-breeding strains of pea plants that varied in only one of seven different characters (see Figure 2.4). img FIGURE 2.4 An illustration of the seven characters that Mendel studied. Each character was found as two variants that were decisively different from each other. img
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For all seven characters described in the data of Figure 2.5, Mendel allowed the F 2 plants to self-fertilize. He found that when F 2 plants with recessive traits were crossed to each other, they always bred true. However, when F 2 plants with dominant traits were crossed, some bred true but others did not. A summary of Mendel's results is shown here. The Ratio of True-Breeding and Non-True-Breeding Parents of the F 2 Generation img When considering the data in this table, keep in mind that it describes the characteristics of the F 2 generation parents that had displayed a dominant phenotype. These data were deduced by analyzing the outcome of the F 3 generation. Based on Mendel's laws, explain the 1:2 ratio obtained in these data. FIGURE 2.5 Mendel's analysis of single-factor crosses. Starting material: Mendel began his experiments with true-breeding strains of pea plants that varied in only one of seven different characters (see Figure 2.4). img FIGURE 2.4 An illustration of the seven characters that Mendel studied. Each character was found as two variants that were decisively different from each other. img
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For Mendel's data shown in Figure 2.8, conduct a chi square analysis to determine if the data agree with Mendel's law of independent assortment. FIGURE 2.8 Mendel's analysis of two-factor crosses. Starting material: In this experiment, Mendel began with two types of true-breeding strains of pea plants that were different with regard to two characters. One strain produced round, yellow seeds ( RRYY ); the other strain produced wrinkled, green seeds ( rryy ). img
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Describe three advantages of using pea plants as an experimental organism.
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In a cross between a heterozygous tall pea plant and a dwarf plant, predict the ratios of the offspring's genotypes and phenotypes.
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What is the difference between cross-fertilization and self-fertilization
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A cross was made between two pea plants, TtAa and Ttaa , where T = tall, t = dwarf, A = axial, and a = terminal. What is the probability that the first three offspring will be tall with axial flowers or dwarf with terminal flowers and the fourth offspring will be tall with axial flowers Discuss what operation(s) (e.g., product rule or binomial expansion equation) you used and in what order they were used.
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Based on genes in pea plants that we have considered in this chapter, which statement(s) is/are not correct A. The gene causing tall plants is an allele of the gene causing dwarf plants. B. The gene causing tall plants is an allele of the gene causing purple flowers. C. The alleles causing tall plants and purple flowers are dominant.
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The fungus Melampsora lini causes a disease known as flax rust. Different strains of M. lini cause varying degrees of the rust disease. Conversely, different strains of flax are resistant or sensitive to the various varieties of rust. The Bombay variety of flax is resistant to M. lini -strain 22 but sensitive to M. lini -strain 24. A strain of flax called 770B is just the opposite; it is resistant to strain 24 but sensitive to strain 22. When 770B was crossed to Bombay, all F 1 individuals were resistant to both strain 22 and strain 24. When F 1 individuals were self-fertilized, the following data were obtained: 43 resistant to strain 22 but sensitive to strain 24 9 sensitive to strain 22 and strain 24 32 sensitive to strain 22 but resistant to strain 24 110 resistant to strain 22 and strain 24 Explain the inheritance pattern for flax resistance and sensitivity to M. lini strains.
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With regard to genotypes, what is a true-breeding organism
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In your own words, describe Mendel's law of segregation. Do not use the word "segregation" in your answer.
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Why did Mendel's work refute the idea of blending inheritance
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Explain the technical differences between a cross-fertilization experiment versus a self-fertilization experiment.
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How can you determine whether an organism is heterozygous or homozygous for a dominant trait
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From the point of view of crosses and data collection, what are the experimental differences between a monohybrid and a dihybrid experiment
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Consider this four-factor cross: Tt Rr yy Aa × Tt RR Yy aa , where T = tall, t = dwarf, R = round, r = wrinkled, Y = yellow, y = green, A = axial, a = terminal. What is the probability that the first three plants will have round seeds What is the easiest way to solve this problem
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Consider this cross in pea plants: Tt Rr yy Aa × Tt rr Yy Aa , where T = tall, t = dwarf, R = round, r = wrinkled, Y = yellow, y = green, A = axial, a = terminal. What is the expected phenotypic outcome of this cross Have one group of students solve this problem by making one big Punnett square, and have another group solve it by making four single-gene Punnett squares and using the product rule. Time each other to see who gets done first.
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