Psychology Study Set 21

Psychology

Quiz 6 :

Conditioning and Learning

Quiz 6 :

Conditioning and Learning

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Negative reinforcement __________________ responding.
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Negative reinforcement occurs when an aversive stimulus is removed after the exhibition of a particular behaviour. So, in reinforcement, the likelihood of occurance of a particular behaviour again in the future is increased due to the absence of the negative stimulus. Therefore, a negative reinforcement increases responding.
Hence, the correct option is (a) increases.
Since the negative reinforcement increases responding, the other options (b), (c), and (d) are incorrect.

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Punishment tends to encourage escape learning, avoidance learning, and
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In psychology, extinction refers to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that eventually decreases the behaviour.
In the partial reinforcement effect, behaviour that is reinforced at irregular intermediates is more difficult to get extincted than behaviour that is continuously reinforced. In psychology, the word correct response is not used to refer to any phenomenon.
Hence, the options (a), (c), and (d) are incorrect.
In psychology, the term aggression is used to refer to a range of behaviours that can harm own self or others or objects in the surrounds both in psychological and physical ways. The expression of the aggression varies, and occurs in a number of ways including physically, mentally or most of the times verbally. Punishment actually tends to encourage avoidance, escaping, and aggression.
Hence, the correct option is (b) aggression.

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Mary watched her brother fall off a bike and hurt himself. Now she is afraid to ride her bike. Mary's fear is a result of
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Stimulus discrimination is a psychology phenomenon in which a person reacts differently to two or more similar stimuli.
Spontaneous recovery is psychology phenomenon of learning and memory, which refers to the reappearance of the conditioned response after a delay.
In classical learning, higher-order conditioning is a form of learning that involves the modification of reaction to a neutral stimulus associated with a conditioned stimulus.
Hence, the options (a), (c), and (d) are incorrect.
Vicarious conditioning is the learning of various feelings, beliefs and emotions, in which a person learns about them by not directly exposed to the stimulus, but through observing how others react to it. The given case, watching brother's fall off, and getting afraid of riding bike, is a best example for vicarious conditioning.
Hence, the correct option is (b) vicarious conditioning.

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Operant reinforcement works best when it is
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The law of effect defines the role of __________________ in learning.
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Tokens are
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Response cost is one form of
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The "sniffer" dogs that locate drugs and explosives at airports learn to identify contraband through ______________ ______________ training.
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You once got sick on a roller coaster. Now the sight of a roller coaster makes you feel queasy. Apparently, the sight of a roller coaster is a ___________________ and your queasiness is a ______________.
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Studies have shown that animals are ___________________ to the passage of time.
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For observational learning to occur, the learner must pay attention to a model, remember what was done, and ______________________ the modeled behavior.
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As a behavioral management strategy, self-recording applies _________________ to change personal habits.
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According to the informational view, classical conditioning creates new
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After you have extinguished a conditioned response, it may recur because of
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At least some phobias can be thought of as
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Programmed instruction presents information in small amounts, gives immediate practice, and provides ______________ feedback to learners.
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Discovery learning is often superior to its opposite:
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Bad habits can be altered by finding ways to remove, avoid, or delay the reinforcement that follows unwanted responses. This strategy is best described as
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Classical and operant conditioning can be distinguished by paying attention to which aspects of a response?
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Conditioned fears respond to a therapy called
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