Quiz 6: Conditioning and Learning


The options such as associative and cognitive; neutral and rewards; and acquisition and spontaneous recovery cannot be used to distinguish classical and operant conditioning. Hence, the options (a), (b), and (d) are incorrect. Classical and operant conditioning are two important concepts in the behavioral psychology. Though both result in learning, the entire processes are quite different for both. The difference between classical and operant conditioning is focusing on whether the behavior is involuntary or voluntary. Both concepts can be distinguished by paying attention towards antecedents and consequences of a response. Hence, the correct option is (c) antecedents and consequences.

Hence, the options (a), (c), and (d) are incorrect. In classical conditioning, the conditioned response (CR) is a reflexive behavior to a conditioned stimulus (CS). In this, a formerly neutral stimulus when associated with an unconditional stimulus (US) results in the production of a conditioned response. For example, a dog salivates from the smell of a meet, without any stimulus. Once some neutral stimulus such as beep has been paired with the meet, the dog will salivate after listening to the beep. But in the given example, the reverse is true. The sight of a roller coaster making you feel queasy because of the previous experience is considered as a conditional stimulus, and the queasiness you feel is a conditional response. Hence, the correct option is (b) CS, CR.

Hence, the options (b), (c), and (d) are incorrect. Classical conditioning theory involves learning a new behavior by combining two stimuli. This is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with the potent stimulus. After pairing is repeated for many times, the organism in test exhibits a new behavior to the stimulus. In the informational view, classical conditioning creates new expectancies. Hence, the correct option is (a) expectancies.