Psychology Study Set 21

Psychology

Quiz 5 :

States of Consciousness

Quiz 5 :

States of Consciousness

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Hyperthermia, heart arrhythmias, and severe liver damage are major risks in the use of
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The drug abuse starts with alcohol, cigarette and proceeds to marijuana and other drugs. In most of the drug abuse cases, the users are influenced by social and physical environment.
Hyperthermia is a condition in which the temperature of the body is elevated due to failure of thermoregulation.
Heart arrhythmia is a clinical condition in which the electrical impulses that coordinate heart beat do not work properly.
The marijuana drug is obtained from hemp plant. Marijuana is a psychoactive drug, which is used to treat glaucoma and side effects of chemotherapy. The short effects of this drug include altered senses, impaired body movement, difficulty with thinking and problem solving. The long term effects of marijuana include reduced thinking, memory, and learning functions.
Benzodiazepine is a tranquillizer, which is used to alleviate nervousness and stress. The high dosage of this drug is addictive and can cause drowsiness, shakiness, and confusion.
Gamma hydroxyl butyrate (GHB) is depressant of central nervous system (CNS) and relaxes the body. Thus, it is a sedative drug. The increased dosage of this drug results in nausea, loss of muscle control, and loss of consciousness.
Hence, the options (a), (b) and (d) are incorrect.
Methylene dioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) is the drug, which results in physical effects such as dilated pupils, elevated blood pressure, jaw clenching, loss of appetite, and elevated body temperature. It can also cause heart arrhythmia and severe liver damage.
Hence, the correct answer is option (c).

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Wish fulfillment and dream symbols are important concepts in which explanation of dream content?
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According to dual process hypothesis of sleep, the sleep cycle is classified into two stages as rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. These two stages of sleep help the brain to refresh and store memories.
The different dream theories are proposed, which state that dreams have hidden meaning, they are meaningless, or they reflect waking thoughts, fantasies, and emotions of an individual. Thus, in support of these concepts, three theories are proposed that include activation-synthesis, neurocognitive, and psychodynamic dream theory.
Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley have proposed a theory called activation-synthesis hypothesis. During REM sleep, the brain centers are turned on but the messages from these cells are blocked from reaching the body. Thus, the brain to interpret random information searches the stored memories and forms a dream. According to this theory, dreams are meaningless and are not messages from our unconscious.
Neurocognitive Dream Theory is proposed by William Domhoff's. According to him, the dreams are related to waking thoughts and emotions. He believes that many of the brain areas are active in both awake and dreaming states. Thus, he states that our dreams are conscious expression of REM sleep.
Imagery rehearsal is a technique used to avoid nightmares. Nightmare is an unpleasant dream that results in typical fear, anxiety, and great sadness. The nightmares mostly occur during REM sleep.
Hence, the options (a), (b) and (c) are incorrect.
"The Interpretation of Dreams" is the book written by Sigmund Freud's, which laid the foundation for Psychodynamic theory. According to this theory, the dreams emphasize internal conflicts and unconscious forces. It also states that the dreams are based on fulfillment of a wish and the dream symbols have deeper symbolic meaning. The dream's content is analyzed to uncover its hidden and symbolic meaning.
Hence, the correct answer is option (d).

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Which of the following is NOT a form of insomnia?
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Insomnia is a sleep disorder. The symptoms of this disorder include difficulty in sleeping, waking during night, daytime sleepiness, irritability, and anxiety. Insomnia is classified into three types as transient, acute, and chronic insomnia.
Transient or temporary insomnia is a condition that lasts less than a week. The causes of this disorder are other disorders in the individual, change in sleep environment, severe depression, stress or timing of sleep.
Drug dependence insomnia is a condition in which the individual depends on drugs or substances to induce sleep. The drugs treat the disorder temporarily but worsen the sleep cycle in long-term.
Chronic insomnia is a condition that lasts for more than one month. In this disorder, the people have high levels of stress hormones or shifts in levels of cytokines. The effects of this disorder majorly depend on causes of disease. The different effects of the disorder are muscular weariness, hallucinations, mental fatigue, and may result in double vision.
Hence, the options (b), (c) and (d) are incorrect.
Non- rapid eye movements (NREMs) sleep occurs along with rapid eye movements (REMs) sleep during stage 1, 2, 3, and 4. During this stage little or no eye movements are seen. It is one of the stages in sleep cycle.
Hence, the correct answer is option (a).

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Which of the following would normally be most incompatible with moving your arms and legs while asleep?
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Addictive drugs trigger
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If you are sleep deprived as you read this question, you may well be experiencing
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When rats and monkeys are given free access to cocaine, they
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Which terms DO NOT belong together?
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Freud's four dream processes ___________ dreams.
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Nightmares differ from night terrors because they occur during __________ sleep.
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_________________ refers to cutting a person off from his or her supply of an addictive substance.
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Suggestible people are more likely to be
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Research has shown that hypnosis cannot produce
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Drug tolerance is most closely associated with
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Drug abuse is partly explained by the fact that psychoactive drugs produce immediate pleasure and
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Sleep restriction and stimulus control are techniques used to treat
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Polydrug abuse accounts for _________ deaths due to drug overdose.
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A person in deep sleep produces mostly
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If REM sleep is interrupted, a person will experience REM
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We can only know the consciousness of other minds through a(n) ________ point of view.
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