Quiz 5: States of Consciousness
The word conscious means "to be aware". The combination of sensations and perceptions of external events along with self-awareness of mental events is called consciousness. The mental events include thoughts, memories, and feelings about one's experiences and oneself. If the consciousness is based on one's own subjective is called first person experience. It helps us to understand our own experiences but it cannot be applicable to understand the consciousness of others. Introspection is the technique used to examine one's own consciousness such as thoughts and feelings. The process includes observation of one's mental state. Psychodynamic is the psychotherapy, which is used to reveal unconscious content of client. It is a form of depth psychology. Hence, the options (a), (c) and (d) are incorrect. The human brain can be easily understandable from third person point of view. Thus, the feelings or mind of first person or others can be understood from the third person point of view. Hence, the correct answer is option (b).
There are four stages of sleep. The different types of waves that are produced by the brain include alpha, beta, and delta waves. According to dual process hypothesis of sleep, the sleep cycle is classified into two stages as rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. These two stages of sleep help the brain to refresh and store memories. During light sleep or stage 1 sleep, the breathing becomes more irregular. The EEG of the individual at this stage involves small and irregular waves that are called alpha waves. Like stage 1 sleep, REM sleep stage is also marked by fast and irregular EEG (electroencephalograph) patterns, which signify alpha waves. Pain insensitivity is a condition in which the person has no sensation of pain. The congenital pain insensitivity is a rare inherited disorder of nervous system. Hyposomnia is characterized by inadequate sleep. Thus, hyposomnia is a sleep disorder that is often associated with neurological disorders such as Parkinson, dementia, etc. Hence, the options (a), (b) and (c) are incorrect. The temporary episode of sleep that lasts for 30 seconds is called microsleep. In this stage the person fails to respond and becomes unconscious. It shifts between states of wakefulness and sleep. Thus, during this stage, there is a shift between theta and alpha waves that are recorded by EEG (electroencephalograph). Hence, the correct answer is option (d).
The tiny electrical signals that are generated by the brain are called brainwaves. These waves can be amplified and recorded with an electroencephalograph or EEG. There are four stages of sleep. The different types of waves that are produced by the brain include alpha, beta, and delta waves. The EEG records pattern of small and fast waves that are called beta waves. The beta waves are produced by an individual in awake and alert state. During light sleep or stage 1 sleep, the breathing becomes more irregular. The EEG of the individual at this stage involves small and irregular waves that are called alpha waves. The rapid eye movements (REMs) are associated with dreams. This stage of sleep is called REM sleep. Like stage 1 sleep, this stage is marked by fast and irregular EEG patterns, which signify alpha waves. Hence, the options (a), (b) and (d) are incorrect. In stage 3 and 4 sleep, the large and slow waves are recorded as EEG. These waves are called delta waves that begin in stage 3 and continue to stage 4. The deepest level of normal sleep is seen in stage 4 sleep. Thus, the waves that are produced in deep sleep are delta waves. Hence, the correct answer is option (c).