Quiz 3: Human Development

Psychology

The word hereditary refers to traits that are inherited. The inherited traits are controlled by regions of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) called genes that occupy certain fixed loci on the chromosomes. Since the traits that are inherited from parents are due to the genes, option (a) hereditary is not correct. The genetic information is stored in the form of DNA. It is inherited by offspring from their parents. The regions of DNA that code for specific traits or characters are called genes. Since the chemical nature of genes is DNA, option (b) is not correct. The genes that encode the traits or characteristics of an organism are located on the chromosomes. They occupy fixed position on the chromosome, called the loci. During the cell division, these chromosomes replicate and pass the characters from parent to progeny. Hence, option (c) influenced by chromosomes in not correct. A trait that is controlled by a single gene is called a monogenic trait. Conversely, a trait that is controlled by several genes is called a polygenic trait. A good example for a polygenic trait is height. Such traits show continuous distribution and the inheritance does not obey Mendelian Laws. Hence, the correct answer is option (d) polygenic.

Mozart effect refers to the short term improvement of the ability to perform certain mental tasks influenced by listening to music. The mental tasks where improvement is said to occur are spatial-temporal reasoning. However, no such information is provided in this context, to support the effect. Hence, option (a) is not correct. The reactive maternal involvement is mostly concerned with a baby's social development in infancy. Hence, option (c) is not correct. The baby's ability to imitate adult actions is not concerned with the learning of basic skills. Hence, option (d) is not correct. The ability of a child to learn basic skills depend on the child's readiness for rapid learning. The 'readiness' is the minimum maturation required for the baby to learn the skills. Unless this maturation levels are reaches, babies cannot learn the basic skills even if they are forced to learn. Hence, the correct answer is option (c) principle of readiness.

Reciprocal stage is concerned with the ability to carry out mental operations such as reversing thoughts. Children develop mastery of conversation at this stage. Deprivation does not affect this stage. Hence, option (a) is not correct. Polygenic stage is concerned with development of certain physical properties like height, skin color, and disease susceptibility. Since deprivation does not affect this stage, option (c) is not correct. Social play phase is related to formation of emotional attachment and it starts from the very early stages of infancy, and continuous throughout the life. Hence, option (d) is not correct. Sensitive periods are the times when children are most susceptible to environmental influences. An event that occurs in sensitive period can have a permanent effect on the development of a child. Deprivation can have a strong effect if it occurs during sensitive periods. Deprivation relates to conditions like lack of nutrition, stimulation, comfort, and love. Therefore, the correct answer is option (b) sensitive periods