Quiz 16 :
The lung cancers in men have mortality rate of 14% and prostate cancer of 28%. Therefore, it is evident that the incidence of the prostate cancer is common in men than lung cancer. The option (a) is incorrect. The lung cancer have mortality rate of 14% in both the men and women. In men prostate cancer is common and prevalent while breast cancer is prevalent in women (29%). Therefore, option (b) is incorrect. Breast cancer is the leading type of cancer in women with mortality rate of 29%. The incidence of the cancer have genetic predisposition and depends on other factors like age, gender, race and ethnicity etc. The option (c) is incorrect. Cancer prevalence depends on gender differences. The incidence of cancer is higher in men than in women. The race and ethnicity also play an important role in cancer incidence. For example, African Americans have high mortality rate of cancer than white people. Therefore, the option (d) is correct.
Individual has a right to privacy, informed concerned, refusal of treatment and rights pertaining to end of life decision making. The 65 year old woman is suffering with breast cancer and had metastasis to liver and bone. She does not want to prolong her life and therefore, refuses the treatment. When the patient is conscious and has ability to make decisions she can make her own choice and may give her consent in an advance directive. She can openly communicate with the family members about the conflict of interest regarding finances, property and inheritance rights. Once the issues are solved the family members may get convinced about her suffering and no longer would she be able to manage the disease. A clear communication of patient wish to her family and receiving family's consent is most important to start or stop the treatment and obeying the decision of patient regarding end of life.
Cancer comprises of more than 200 diseases which are characterized by uncontrolled and irregular growth of the cells. Cancer is caused in people over 55 years old because majority of the cases of about 77% are diagnosed in old age. In United States, an estimated population of 1,660,290 is diagnosed with invasive carcinoma every year. The incidence of the cancer is found to be decreasing since 1990s with decreased mortality rate of common cancers such as prostate, breast, lung and colorectal cancers. The preventive efforts are effective in decrease in the incidence of these cancers. The cancers such as leukemia, liver cancer and skin cancer incidence are found to be increased. Melanoma is a rapid cancer than any other malignancy in United States. The cancer incidence is found higher in men than in women. Though the mortality rate is declined still cancer is the second most important cause of death in U.S. In people over age 85 years cancer is prevalent cause of the death. 580,350 Americans are expected to die because of cancer annually. About 13.7 million Americans are living with a history of the cancer. The overall five years survival rate is found to be 68% which is increased of 19% over past 30 years. The statistics of Americans living with cancer include the disease free, people in remission or undergoing treatment. This data is much helpful to describe the scope of the cancer as a public health problem.