Appendix

History

Answer would ideally include: One should point out that Muslims had a long history of accommodation with non-Muslims based upon Qur'anic teachings. Lives and property were guaranteed in exchange for obedience and the payment of taxes. The Ottomans extended tolerance beyond Christians and Jews to many others within their empire, including Serbs, Bosnians, Croats, and Orthodox Christians. Specific mention should be made of Rabbi Isaac Sarfati's attempts to encourage Jews to migrate to Turkey. The Safavid attempted conversion of some Christians, but attitudes remained favorable toward Christians and others who did not convert. Regarding India, discussion should include the incorporation of Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, Sikhs, and Christians. Specific ways in which Akbar sought to promote accommodation should be noted, such as participation in festivals and his manner of dress. Aurangzeb is one who distanced himself from accommodation. Among other things, he appointed censors, forbade sati, abolished certain taxes, and ordered the destruction of temples.

Answer would ideally include: In assessing the role of Peter the Great in Russia's transition to an empire, it is important that essays begin by offering some sense of how this process began prior to Peter's rise to power. Discussion should point out that Russia lay in between the continents of Europe and Asia and that it drew from both as it expanded. The process of state-building and territorial expansion begun by the tsars culiminated in the reign of Peter the Great, whose primary contribution was turning Russia toward the West. In assessing Peter's predecessors, it is important to address the work of Ivan the Terrible in particular, as he clearly influenced Peter's own program of expansion and state-building. Also of great importance to Peter's efforts was his focus on gaining access to the sea, specifically the Ottoman-controlled Black Sea and the Sweden-dominated Baltic Sea. As part of the discussion of territoral expansion under Peter, specific conflicts should be noted, such as the Great Northern War and the attack on Fort Azov and Poltava. Another key component to address is the westernization of Russia under Peter. Specific ways in which this transition occurred should be highlighted.

Answer would ideally include: A good essay should begin with a look at post-World War I Germany and the challenges that it faced, such as political instability and the crippling effects of hyperinflation during the Weimar Republic. Interspersed with this should be a discussion of Hitler's role in the early German Worker's Party and his "stab in the back" theory. An especially good essay would also give consideration to Hitler's youth and the impact of nationalism and racism on his worldview, particularly with regard to his virulent anti-Semitism and anti-Marxist theories. From there, attention should shift toward the specific steps that allowed for his transition to power. Special note should be made of his time in jail, in which he elaborated on his ideas of race, territory, and leadership through dictating Mein Kampf. The onset of the Great Depression gave a tremendous boon to his bid for power and should be examined as well. The ways in which Hitler and the Nazis appealed to German youth, the breakdown of government in the late 1920s, and Hitler's skillful backroom politics were also significant factors.

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