Which of the following equations illustrates phenotypic variation that comes from both the genotype and the environment?
A) VP = VG
B) VP = VE
C) VP = VG + VE
D) VP = VG + VE + VG×E
Which response to different environmental conditions would you expect from a species that has a high VG×E for a trait?
A) All genotypes respond similarly to environmental conditions.
B) The magnitude of each genotype's response is always similar.
C) Different genotypes have varying responses to different conditions.
D) The same genotype will have the same response to different conditions.
Which of the following scenarios best describes how you would study reaction norms?
A) Rear genetically similar organisms under different environmental conditions.
B) Randomly breed individuals together and measure the phenotype of their offspring.
C) Allow individuals from different populations to mate and observe the offspring phenotypes.
D) Raise individuals under different environmental conditions than they were born in.
If chromosomes were passed down unchanged from generation to generation, then this state would best be described as
A) linkage equilibrium.
B) linkage disequilibrium.
C) broad sense heritability.
D) physical linkage.