If Most Stars Are Low-Mass Stars, and Low-Mass Stars Typically
If most stars are low-mass stars, and low-mass stars typically eject a planetary nebula, why then do astronomers see relatively few planetary nebulae in the sky?
A) planetary nebulae can only be detected through their faint radio emissions
B) planetary nebulae are only visible when a planet surrounding the star plows through the ejected material, causing it to glow
C) planetary nebulae expand rapidly and soon become too faint to be visible
D) planetary nebulae quickly fall back onto the star produced them
E) while most stars are low-mass when they are born, throughout their lives they gather more and more material; so few stars are low-mass when they die
Which of the following stages will our own Sun go through in the future:
A) spending a long time on the main sequence
B) expanding to become red giant
C) eventually fusing helium into carbon
D) giving off a planetary nebula
E) all of the above
Which of the following statements about the mass of the Sun during its lifetime is correct?
A) It will have the same exact mass from birth to death
B) The only way the Sun loses mass is by turning a bit of mass into energy during fusion, and this loss is very small
C) The Sun will lose some mass during the late periods of its life, but the amount loss will be less than 1 %.
D) The Sun will lose a significant amount of mass during and after its red giant phase
E) The Sun will lose almost ALL of its mass before it dies; the remaining mass will be less than the mass of Jupiter.
Section 22.5: The Evolution of More Massive Stars
If stars with masses like our Sun's cannot make elements heavier than oxygen, where are heavier elements like silicon produced in the universe?
A) these heavier elements were made in the Big Bang at the time the universe began, and have been part of the universe ever since
B) heavier elements are made in the proto-planetary disks that accompany many newly forming stars
C) heavier elements are made in the cores of significantly more massive stars than the Sun, which can get hotter in the middle
D) heavier elements are made in the cores of planets that are molten and hot when they form
E) this is an unsolved problem in astronomy; no one knows