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Question 263
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Use the following to answer questions :
Scenario II
Historically,psychologists have conceptualized personality in different ways.Sigmund Freud's psychodynamic approach regards personality as formed by needs,strivings,and desires operating largely outside of awareness in the dynamic unconsciousness.According to Freud,personality characteristics develop early in life,are fairly rigid,and describe behaviour in a variety of situations.Like Freud,trait theorists such as Gordon Allport viewed traits as stable predispositions to behave in a variety of contexts.Unlike Freud,they did not believe that these traits were the products of unconscious desires.Humanists,such as Abraham Maslow,viewed individual personality differences as arising from the ways in which the environment facilitates or blocks the innate human tendency to reach our own potential.Behaviourists,such as B.F.Skinner,denied the existence of personality as a thing but rather conceptualized it as a mere summary term for a set of reliable behaviours that are reinforced in the presence of similar situations.Different situations,then,might give rise to different behaviours that might be diametrically opposed when labelled in terms of traits.Finally,the social-cognitive approach of Mischel views personality in terms of how people think and respond to the different situations encountered in daily life.In this approach,personality,learning history,and the situation interact to determine behaviour,with the power of the situation often trumping the effects of personality.
-(Scenario II)Although their perspectives differ in fundamental ways,this pair of psychologists would be LEAST surprised that otherwise honest people would cheat on an exam if they believed others were doing it and no one would be caught.

A)Allport and Freud
B)Allport and Mischel
C)Mischel and Skinner
D)Skinner and Freud

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