________ thinkers generally assume that a correct answer always exists and can be obtained through the senses or from authorities.
Which of the following statements is true of formal reasoning?
A) In formal reasoning, the information needed for drawing a conclusion or reaching a solution is specified clearly.
B) In formal reasoning, many approaches, viewpoints, or possible solutions may compete, and you may have to decide which one is most "reasonable."
C) Formal reasoning involves dialectical reasoning.
D) Formal reasoning uses heuristics, or rules of thumb, to try to reach a solution.
_______ is the tendency to solve new problems using procedures that worked before on similar problems.
A) Confirmation bias
B) A mental set
C) Hindsight bias
D) The framing effect
Who among the following people is most likely to experience cognitive dissonance?
A) the draftee who hates the army
B) the smoker who knows that smoking causes lung cancer
C) the teenager who doesn't like the car a parent bought for him
D) the lawyer who worked hard to complete law school and likes working as a lawyer